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Diagnosing Keratoconus at the Khanna Vision Institute is a comprehensive and precise process that leverages the latest advancements in eye care technology. The expert team at Khanna Vision Institute utilizes a multi-faceted approach to accurately identify and assess the severity of this condition.

At the heart of the diagnostic process is the use of advanced corneal imaging techniques, such as corneal topography and tomography. These state-of-the-art tools provide a detailed, high-resolution map of the cornea’s shape and curvature, allowing the clinicians to detect even the earliest signs of keratoconus. By analyzing these precise measurements, the team can identify the characteristic cone-like protrusion and thinning that are hallmarks of the condition.

In addition to the advanced imaging, the Khanna Vision Institute’s comprehensive evaluation includes a thorough eye examination, assessing visual acuity, refractive errors, and the overall health of the eye. This holistic approach ensures that the diagnosis is not only accurate but also provides a clear understanding of the individual’s specific visual needs and the most appropriate treatment options.

1. Patient History

Key Questions:

When did you first notice changes in your vision?

Do you experience any visual distortions or blurriness?

Are you more sensitive to light or glare, especially at night?

Have you needed frequent changes in your glasses or contact lens prescriptions?

Does anyone in your family have keratoconus or other eye conditions?

Do you have a history of chronic eye rubbing, allergies, or atopic diseases?

Previously have you had any previous eye injuries or surgeries?

2. Clinical Examination

Visual Acuity Test:

It measures how well a patient can see at various distances.

Keratoconus patients often exhibit reduced visual acuity.

Slit-Lamp Examination:

Provides a detailed view of the cornea and other eye structures.

Signs of keratoconus include thinning of the cornea, iron deposits, and Vogt’s striae (stress lines in the cornea).

3. Diagnostic Tests

Corneal Topography:

Maps the curvature of the cornea.

A hallmark of keratoconus is an asymmetrical, cone-like protrusion of the cornea.

Provides detailed images and can detect early keratoconus even before symptoms appear.


It measures the thickness of the cornea.

Keratoconic corneas are thinner, particularly in the area of the cone.


It measures the curvature of the anterior surface of the cornea.

Detects irregularities in corneal shape.

Corneal Tomography:

It provides a three-dimensional map of the cornea, including the anterior and posterior surfaces.

Useful for detecting early signs of keratoconus and monitoring progression.

Wavefront Analysis:

It measures higher-order aberrations caused by the irregular shape of the keratoconic cornea.

Helps in understanding the impact of keratoconus on visual quality.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT):

Provides high-resolution cross-sectional images of the cornea.

Useful for assessing corneal thickness and structural integrity.

4. Diagnostic Criteria

Early Keratoconus:

Mild corneal thinning and asymmetry detected by corneal topography.

Minimal to no visual symptoms, but may show increased sensitivity to glare and light.

Moderate Keratoconus:

More pronounced corneal thinning and cone formation.

Significant visual symptoms, such as blurred and distorted vision, frequent prescription changes.

Visible signs on slit-lamp examination, such as Vogt’s striae and Fleischer rings.

Advanced Keratoconus:

Severe corneal thinning, pronounced cone shape, and possible scarring.

Major visual impairment, difficulty in achieving clear vision even with contact lenses.

Hydrops (sudden corneal swelling due to rupture of Descemet’s membrane) may occur.

Example Diagnostic Pathway

Patient History:

Complaints of blurred and distorted vision.

Reports increased sensitivity to light and frequent prescription changes.

Family history of keratoconus and history of chronic eye rubbing.

Clinical Examination:

Reduced visual acuity, especially in one eye.

Slit-lamp examination reveals thinning of the cornea and presence of Fleischer rings.

Diagnostic Tests:

Corneal topography shows an asymmetric, cone-shaped protrusion.

Pachymetry indicates localized thinning of the cornea.

Keratometry reveals irregular corneal curvature.

Corneal tomography confirms the diagnosis with detailed imaging of corneal structure.

Patients can trust that the Khanna Vision Institute’s expertise in diagnosing keratoconus is unparalleled. With a commitment to staying at the best of eye care technology and a deep understanding of the nuances of this condition, the institute’s team is equipped to provide the most precise and reliable diagnosis, setting the stage for personalized and effective treatment plans.